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Thread: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

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    God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Discuss Bob's latest blog entry.
    I got four things to live by: don't say nothin' that will hurt anybody; don't give advice--no one will take it anyway; don't complain; don't explain. Walter Scott

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Out of this great post I am hoping that my question isn't strange or controversial (such as a common grace question would be). The following sentence made me think of the many around me, especially my own family who at this time do not confess Christ.

    the Lord correspondingly hardened Pharoahís heart more rigidly against even a nominal repentance that would avoid temporal suffering.

    A nominal repentance would also come from the Lord and we see that worked out continually in the lives of the unbeliever. Would you consider the nominal repentance............and the subsequent lessening of temporal suffering in the reprobate as God's mercy to them?

    Mercy is so vast and when you have His mercy in election and have 'experienced' His mercy in ways that you never thought you would in this life you watch for it every day and you see what appears to be mercy to those who don't count it as such nor thank Him for it in any way, hence my thoughts and question..Perhaps because we don't know who is truly reprobate in this life we can't really determine if the Lord's dealings with them can be considered mercy? Your thoughts on that would be appreciated.

    Eileen~
    "To those who have no works-phobia, I will state that you are not trembling before the gospel" Robert R. Higby

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Quote Originally Posted by Eileen
    Out of this great post I am hoping that my question isn't strange or controversial (such as a common grace question would be). The following sentence made me think of the many around me, especially my own family who at this time do not confess Christ.

    the Lord correspondingly hardened Pharoahís heart more rigidly against even a nominal repentance that would avoid temporal suffering.

    A nominal repentance would also come from the Lord and we see that worked out continually in the lives of the unbeliever. Would you consider the nominal repentance............and the subsequent lessening of temporal suffering in the reprobate as God's mercy to them?

    Eileen~
    Eileen , a nominal repentance is no repentance at all. It rather is the same hard hardenness. There is no mercy that can be advocated towards the reprobate from the Lord. God has mercy towards the elect alone. To advocate this would be to advocate common grace, love.... et al.

    Consider the 2nd point of the 3 points advocated by the Christian Reformed Church:
    1. Brief Answer to the Second Point of Common Grace:
    2. The meaning of the Second Point:
      1. The second point of 1924 does not teach that God holds the sinner in His power, so that he cannot do anything against the will and providence of God. This is plainly taught in the Bible and in the Belgic Confession, Art. 13.
      2. But the second point teaches:
        1. That there is a gracious operation of the Holy Spirit which is not regenerating on the heart and mind and will of the sinner.
        2. That this operation commenced immediately after the fall and continues all through history.
        3. That as a result there is in man a remnant of his original goodness, so that he is not as depraved as he would be without this operation.
        4. That, because of this operation, the natural man is able to live a relatively good life in this life, and do good in the sphere of the world.
    3. Objection to the Second Point:
      1. The proof adduced by Synod for this point does not hold:
        1. From Scripture the Synod quoted the following passages: Gen. 6:3; Psa. 81:11-12; Acts 7:42; Rom. 1:24, 26, 28; II Thess. 2:6-7; Concerning these passages we note:
          1. Only one speaks of the Holy Spirit at all, namely, Gen. 6:3. However, the text does not speak of a restraining by the Spirit, but of a striving. This took place through the Word of God by the prophets.
          2. None of them speak of a restraint of sin.
          3. Three of them speak of the very opposite of restraint, namely, of a delivering over into sin by the wrath of God. See: Psa. 81:11-12; Rom. 1:24, 26, 28; Acts 7:42.
          4. II Thess. 2:6-7 does not refer to the Holy Spirit as is plain from the text itself.
        2. As to the proof adduced from the Confessions:
          1. Belgic Conf., Art. 13, does not speak of an influence of the Holy Spirit, but of the Providential power of God; nor of an inward restraint of sin, but the restraint of sinners and devils.
          2. Art. 36 does not speak of an influence of the Spirit but of the power of the police or magistrate.
      2. The Second Point itself is contrary to Scripture and the Confessions:
        1. To Scripture:
          1. It postulates a remnant of good in natural man, which is contrary to all those passages of Holy Writ that speak of the depravity of the natural man. For these, see the discussion under Point III.
          2. Scripture teaches directly the opposite from the main tenant of the Second Point when it declares that God delivers men over into ever greater corruption by His wrath. See: Rom. 1:24-28; Psalm 51:5.
        2. To the Confessions: Canons III-IV:4 speaks of "remnants of natural light." These remnants are not due to an operation of Common Grace. Even with these remnants, however, the natural man is still wholly depraved and incapable of doing any good even in things natural and civil.
    Greetings and salutations, el rana

    21There are many devices in a man's heart; nevertheless the counsel of the LORD, that shall stand.

    Proverbs chapter 19

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    1. That as a result there is in man a remnant of his original goodness, so that he is not as depraved as he would be without this operation.
    2. That, because of this operation, the natural man is
    That's where I think the whole think crumbles: "man had any ORIGINAL goodness".

    To me that imply two things:
    1. Man did not "die" with sin; either that or he died and his goodness did not. That's preposterous!
    2. Man HAD goodness at all. That is very hard to prove I believe. God saw His creation as good and not MAN as good.
    I prefer the original explanation of "Total depravity": Man is INTRINSICALLY EVIL and NOT INTENSELY EVIL.

    Man has the ability to "make a good living" and NEVER to choose The Good or God.

    Man can enjoy the natural benefits of creation, but that is far from any "gracious" operation of the Holy Spirit in His life. I have a few studies, not completed yet, that MOST if not ALL that the reprobate enjoys here on earth is:
    1. a rub off of the benefits given to the Elect (Example: we're the salt, we're the light. They enjoy the benefits of us being the salt and light)
    2. A temporary "take over" of the priviledges of the Elect since this are destined to enjoy them forever.
    I know this discussion is NOT about common Grace, I just thought I should throw this in there.

    Nominal Repentance Versus Real Repentance:

    The Bible does not make a distinction such as the above. The Bible tells us of the "sorrow according to the world and sadness according to a godly manner". The context indicates that repentance and in fact talks about "two kinds of sorrow that work repentance". One working death, the other working Salvation. (I take it to mean the difference between REMORSE--where one looks upon what HE DID, and Biblical Repentance--where one looks upon what Jesus did!" (II Cor. 7: 9-10)

    There would be no case in Pharaoh's heart of a "Godly sorrow" since God decreed its hardening. Pharaoh was sorry that he lost in his "dispute" with Moses and even declared God to be The God, but he could never have Godly repentance that works Salvation.

    I am increasingly surprised that in some circles there is still a problem in receiving by faith what the Bible says about many things, including but not limited to, God hardening some people's heart. This difficulty causes discussions in Bible studies that are more a "re-writing" of biblical events than actually the clarification of them. I don't mean to say that the studies mentioned in this thread are any of that, but that does not mean that such a problem does not exist... Even in some reformed circles, that, to my awe, are very illiterate in Biblical teaching about anything, especially theology, or their own doctrinal foundations, I hear people say that "God saw that Pharaoh was going to disobey in the future thus He hardened Pharaoh's heart as a punishement". What can be more absurd???

    I hope I understood Eileen's question and did not complicate the issue even more...

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    I have talked to many so called supralapsarians, even one recently who claimed to believe only in the unitary (one) will of God, yet have the audacity to declare that the hardening of Pharaoah's heart was via God "removing His restraining hand" and "allowing Pharaoah" to continue on his wicked ways. This is pure infralapsarianism (free willism), and these people are NOT "high grace" supralapsarian calvinists!
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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Brandon, I find these people either do not believe in Absolute Predestination or they simply like the idea but can't handle its implications. Also maybe they havenít seen its logical conclusions and that God's active hardening of the reprobate is one of them. Either way this venom still courses through the veins of most of the Reformed churches.



    Eileen, I would not take Bob's statement to be true repentance. Rather a false repentance, which I believe is a form of judgment. God's disposition never at any point changes; this being said, all of God's actions towards the reprobate whether they appear to us to have some earthly benefit are still a form of judgment. God never shows mercy, love or grace to the reprobate period. I understand you didn't want this to be controversial like common grace but they are one in the same.

    Mike


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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    ok, let me show you my complete ignorance as I thought of that sentence and what I thought it meant.

    A nominal (not true, of coarse) repentance to me meant that the reprobate person (because we are talking reprobate here) has a semblance of fear of God which works itself out in their actions and avoids some of the sufferings in this life. temporal suffering.....all this in the Sovereignty of God, who turns the hearts of men to accomplish His will. Which in turn made me think of temporal mercy.

    I perhaps have separated Grace and Mercy where I shouldn't have. I can tell you that in a learning process you learn one thing and you see that if affects something else that you have thought and hopefully that process will go on the remainder of my days. I will do a study of His mercy........

    Psalm 145:9 "His tender mercies are over all His works"

    Bob,
    I have by the witness of the Holy Spirit always believed that the Lord Himself hardened Pharoah's heart......the scripture says so! I was in 'trouble' one time, kind of, because I believed that the Lord caused David (through Satan) to number the people too. Many in my own circle don't hold to the position that the Lord 'causes' such things and I believe because they are afraid that folks will throw away their responsibility. Thank you for your reinforcement of that truth that solidifies the Sovereignty of God.

    I hope that I didn't take this off topic and I'm so sorry if I did. To me, my questions are so simple, aren't they?

    Eileen~
    "To those who have no works-phobia, I will state that you are not trembling before the gospel" Robert R. Higby

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    A lot has been said since last night! Ray, I agree with you that only gospel repentance is significant in the eternal aspect of things.

    Eileen:Would you consider the nominal repentance............and the subsequent lessening of temporal suffering in the reprobate as God's mercy to them?

    Many have already commented on this. I don't want to confuse God's MERCY or GRACE with his general GOODNESS. There is such a thing as temporal 'repentance' (or whatever we want to call it) just as there is such a thing as temporal 'faith' (as the gospel of John states--many 'believed' in Christ yet wanted to kill him! Jn. 8:31). There is no absolute 'sanctified use' of Greek or Hebrew words in scripture that will cover EVERY anomaly or alternate use! We have to go with the major usage or 90%+ meaning.

    I expected a lot more challenges to my post on God's sovereign hardening of hearts. I do not claim to have all the truth on this subject, by any means! But I'm absolutely convinced that the traditional 'party line' on this matter is not the truth. God does not merely 'allow' anything (including rebellion of hearts against him); otherwise he does not have sovereign control over every detail of history!
    I got four things to live by: don't say nothin' that will hurt anybody; don't give advice--no one will take it anyway; don't complain; don't explain. Walter Scott

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Quote Originally Posted by BillTwisse
    I expected a lot more challenges to my post on God's sovereign hardening of hearts.
    Bob, it appears that mostly high grace predestinarians post here now.
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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Dear Bob:

    I cannot even begin to scratch the understanding as to why so called reformed folk still make use of the verb "allow" when anything refers to any event recorded in the Bible! We should "ban" the term "allow" from our vocabularies when it is spoken of God's decrees! "Allow" sometimes gives me the hillarious impression that someone is imagining a little "god" shrugging his shoulders, dropping his popcorn, spitting some lef over corn and saying "well, I guess it is all right if Pharaoh's disobeys me... I will "allow" it and then I am make things work on my favor... My comparison may sound irreverent, but NOT as irreverent as reducing God to an "allowing god" rather than glorifying Him as a Decreeing God!

    Milt
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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Does God infuse some sin or evil into the person, or does the hardening come from witholding His grace?

    I find it ironic that Pharoas heart hardened more once the judgements/plagues relented.

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    The Cause of reprobation does not lie in anything outside of God, not even in sin, but in Godís absolute sovereignty. If sin were the cause of reprobation, then God would be dependent upon manís actions in His decrees. Moreover, then all men would be reprobated, because all have sinned.

    God is sovereign in election, but also in rejection. Both depend on nothing but Godís sovereign pleasure, and, being Godís decree they cannot be dependent upon some one or some thing outside of God. ďThe LORD hath made all things for Himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.Ē (Prov. 16:4)

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    The Cause of reprobation does not lie in anything outside of God, not even in sin, but in Godís absolute sovereignty. If sin were the cause of reprobation, then God would be dependent upon manís actions in His decrees. Moreover, then all men would be reprobated, because all have sinned.

    God is sovereign in election, but also in rejection. Both depend on nothing but Godís sovereign pleasure, and, being Godís decree they cannot be dependent upon some one or some thing outside of God. ďThe LORD hath made all things for Himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.Ē (Prov. 16:4)
    Amen Joe, you Hyper-Calvinist!


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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Quote Originally Posted by lionovjudah
    The Cause of reprobation does not lie in anything outside of God, not even in sin, but in Godís absolute sovereignty. If sin were the cause of reprobation, then God would be dependent upon manís actions in His decrees. Moreover, then all men would be reprobated, because all have sinned.

    God is sovereign in election, but also in rejection. Both depend on nothing but Godís sovereign pleasure, and, being Godís decree they cannot be dependent upon some one or some thing outside of God. ďThe LORD hath made all things for Himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.Ē (Prov. 16:4)
    Yikes! I did not expect that from you, Joe! What you just wrote would get you kicked out of the vast majority of reformed churches.
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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Quote Originally Posted by Darth Gill
    Yikes! I did not expect that from you, Joe! What you just wrote would get you kicked out of the vast majority of reformed churches.
    Well, I still do not claim to have hast knowledge of His Decrees, but it makes sense. I have heard some argue that God has to view sin in order to reprobate, and I realized that makes no sense, because then we would all be reprobated!!!!! We sin because we are all sinners not because we are a reprobate.

    SOme also conclude that election= holy life all the time, and reprobationg equals evil all the time. I do not agree with that either. God not only decrees the final state, but also the means to reach that state, all accomplished by His Soveriegn Pleasure.


    I would like some to address my first question though :

    Does God infuse some sin or evil into the person, or does the hardening come from witholding His grace? I noticed Pharaoh hardened more after the judgements relented.

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Quote Originally Posted by lionovjudah
    Does God infuse some sin or evil into the person, or does the hardening come from witholding His grace?
    What grace?
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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    I recently noticed something peculiar in the refernce to "the same lump" Paul uses. The words, "the same lump," points to men not created, not yet viewed as fallen creatures. If men were viewed here as fallen creatures, they could not be said to be made out of the same lump both to honor and dishonor. Rather, it would have been said that all were dishonorable and some were left in dishonor and some were made honorable. But this is not what the passage says. Paul tells us God made out of "the same lump" some to honor and others to dishonor. God created man with a purpose. God first fixed the end and then determined the means to create him. No wise potter would first make his pots and then decide for what use he made them. the vessels of wrath, He determined to create them, to fall in Adam, to leave them in their sins, to condemn them in their sins, and to punish them with wrath. This was designed to glorify His justice and longsuffering without the least blemish on His mercy and goodness.

    I found this article that adfdresses my question. Any comments?


    Jerome Zanchious
    POSITION 5. --God is the creator of the wicked, but not of their wickedness; He is the author of their being, but not the infuser of their sin.

    It is most certainly His will (for adorable and unsearchable reasons) to permit sin, but, with all possible reverence be it spoken, it should seem that He cannot, consistently with the purity of His nature, the glory of His attributes, and the truth of His declarations, be Himself the author of it. "Sin," says the apostle, "entered into the world by one man,'' meaning by Adam, consequently it was not introduced God Himself. Though without the permission of His will and the concurrence of His providence, its introduction had been impossible, yet is He not hereby the Author of sin so introduced. Luther observes: "It is a great degree of faith to believe that God is merciful and gracious, though He saves so few and condemns so many, and that He is strictly just, though, in consequence of His own will, He made us not exempt from liableness to condemnation." And: "Although God doth not make sin, nevertheless He ceases not to create and multiply individuals in the human nature, which, through the withholding of His Spirit, is corrupted by sin, just as a skillful artist may form curious statues out of bad materials. So, such as their nature is, such are men themselves; God forms them out of such a nature."



    POSITION 6.--The condemnation of the reprobate is necessary and inevitable. Which we prove thus:

    It is evident from Scripture that the reprobate shall be condemned. But nothing comes to pass (much less can the condemnation of a rational creature) but in consequence of the will and decree of God. Therefore the non-elect could not be condemned was it not the Divine pleasure and determination that they should, and if God wills and determines their condemnation, that condemnation is necessary and inevitable. By their sins they have made themselves guilty of death, and as it is not the will of God to pardon those sins and grant them repentance unto life, the punishment of such impenitent sinners is as unavoidable as it is just. It is our Lord's own declaration that "a corrupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit'' (Matt. vii.), or, in other words, that a depraved sinner cannot produce in himself those gracious habits, nor exert those gracious acts, without which no adult person can be saved. Consequently the reprobate must, as corrupt, fruitless trees (or fruitful in evil only), be "hewn down and cast into the fire" (Matt. iii.). This, therefore, serves as another argument in proof of the inevitability of their future punishment, which argument, in brief, amounts to this: they who are not saved from sin must unavoidably perish, but the reprobate are not saved from sin (for they have neither will nor power to save themselves, and God, though He certainly can, yet He certainly will not save them), therefore their perdition is unavoidable. Nor does it follow, from hence, that God forces the reprobate into sin, and thereby into misery, against their wills, but that, in consequence of their natural depravity (which it is not the divine pleasure to deliver them out of, neither is He bound to do it, nor are they themselves so much as desirous that He would), they are voluntarily biased and inclined to evil; nay, which is worse still, they hug and value their spiritual chains, and even greedily pursue the paths of sin, which lead to the chambers of death. Thus God does not (as we are slanderously reported to affirm) compel the wicked to sin, as the rider spurs forward an unwilling horse; God only says in effect that tremendous Word, "Let them alone" (Matt. xv. 14). He need but slacken the reins of providential restraint and withhold the influence of saving grace, and apostate man will too soon, and too surely, of his own accord, "fall by his iniquity"; he will presently be, spiritually speaking, a felo de se, and, without any other efficiency, lay violent hands on his own soul. So that though the condemnation of the reprobate is unavoidable, yet the necessity of it is so far from making them mere machines or involuntary agents, that it does not in the least interfere with the rational freedom of their wills, nor serve to render them less inexcusable.

    POSITION 7.--The punishment of the non-elect was not the ultimate end of their creation, but the glory of God. It is frequently objected to us that, according to our view of predestination, "God makes some persons on purpose to damn them," but this we never advanced; nay, we utterly reject it as equally unworthy of God to do and of a rational being to suppose. The grand, principal end, proposed by God in His formation of all things, and of mankind in particular, was the manifestation and display of His own glorious attributes. His ultimate scope in the creation of the elect is to evidence and make known by their salvation the unsearchable riches of His power and wisdom, mercy and level and the creation of the non-elect is for the display of His justice, power, sovereignty, holiness and truth. So that nothing can be more certain than the declaration of the text we have frequently had occasion to cite, " The Lord hath made all things for Himself, even the wicked for the day of evil" (Prov. xvi.). On one hand, the "vessels of wrath are fitted for destruction," in order that God may "show His wrath and make His power known," and manifest the greatness of His patience and longsuffering (Rom. ix. 32). On the other hand, He afore prepared the elect to salvation, that on them He might demonstrate "the riches of His glory and mercy" (ver. 23). As, therefore, God Himself is the sole Author and efficient of all His own actions, so is He likewise the supreme end to which they lead and in which they terminate.

    Besides, the creation and perdition of the ungodly answer another purpose (though a subordinate one) with regard to the elect themselves, who from the rejection of those learn (1) to admire the riches of the Divine love toward themselves, which planned and has accomplished the work of their salvation, while others, by nature on an equal level with them, are excluded from a participation of the same benefits. And such a view of the Lord's distinguishing mercy is (2) a most powerful motive to thankfulness that when they too might justly have been condemned with the world of the non-elect, they were marked out as heirs of the grace of life. (3) Hereby they are taught ardently to love their heavenly Father; (4) to trust in Him assuredly for a continued supply of grace while they are on earth. and for the accomplishment of His eternal decree and promise by their glorification in heaven; and (5) to live as becomes those who have received such unspeakable mercies from the hand of their God and Savior. So Bucer somewhere observes that the punishment of the reprobate "is useful to the elect, inasmuch as it influences them to a greater fear and abhorrence of sin, and to a firmer reliance on the goodness of God."


    Here is the whole article

    http://www.mbrem.com/calvinism/rprobate.htm



    Joe

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Quote Originally Posted by Darth Gill
    What grace?
    Restraining grace? I do not know how else to put it Brandan. Perhaps witholding His Spirit?

    I am attempting to make a distinction between decreeing reprobation by nothing outside Himself, and since sin is not within God, I cannot conclude that He infuses sin or evil in a person.

    I just posted an article by Zanchious that adresses this and I prematurely agree

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    The propositions of Zanchius all go back to the Augustinian argument re: God is not the author of sin--which has become orthodoxy to most Protestants (and all Roman Catholics/Eastern).

    God is the creator of the wicked, but not of their wickedness; He is the author of their being, but not the infuser of their sin.

    If God is not the creator of wickedness, from whence did wickedness arise--was it a mysterious and unexplainable infection that developed out of good and order? God is the creator of all things good or bad. Even the inanimate universe functions according to both fixed law (good) and quantum physics (evil); God created both.

    1. God creates AND SUSTAINS all things inanimate. He does not merely create, invest with laws, and withdraw. The exact shape of a tree, for instance, is unpredictable based merely on the laws that cause the tree to germinate and grow. The exact size, location, and direction of every branch and leaf occurs due to either random chance or a pre-determined plan; it has to be one or the other. If it is due to a pre-determined plan, God is present in sustaining power to make the tree grow exactly as he desires.

    2. In the spiritual realm of the kingdom of light, God creates and sustains all things righteous. We all confess our dependence on the Lord to sustain our regenerate existence in the power of the Holy Spirit. The physical counterpart to this is that God creates each soul/body with life and is actively present to sustain life for all eternity beyond that creative act.

    3. In the spiritual realm of the kingdom of darkness, God creates and sustains all things wicked. If this were not the case, the DETAILS of reprobate history cannot be pre-destined by God--the thoughts and acts of wicked creatures would only be 'generally' predictable. If God merely 'permits' wickeness but does not create or sustain it then the details of the dark side of history are not in his sovereign control.

    Only the subjects of the kingdom of light partake of the divine nature (righteousness); in God is light and no darkness. The wickedness that he creates and sustains is not in his image but accomplishes his sovereign purposes nonetheless.
    I got four things to live by: don't say nothin' that will hurt anybody; don't give advice--no one will take it anyway; don't complain; don't explain. Walter Scott

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    Re: God's Sovereignty in Hardening Reprobate Hearts

    Restraining grace? I do not know how else to put it Brandan. Perhaps witholding His Spirit?

    Joe, because this is pretty much the same thing as Milt addressed I will repost what he said:

    I cannot even begin to scratch the understanding as to why so called reformed folk still make use of the verb "allow" when anything refers to any event recorded in the Bible! We should "ban" the term "allow" from our vocabularies when it is spoken of God's decrees! "Allow" sometimes gives me the hillarious impression that someone is imagining a little "god" shrugging his shoulders, dropping his popcorn, spitting some lef over corn and saying "well, I guess it is all right if Pharaoh's disobeys me... I will "allow" it and then I am make things work on my favor... My comparison may sound irreverent, but NOT as irreverent as reducing God to an "allowing god" rather than glorifying Him as a Decreeing God!
    The reason this relates is because when someone refers to withholding or restraining it implies there is an opposing impulse or force that would have it otherwise. Or it implies that God is only 'allowing' dead sinners to continue in their blind state, when really He predestined them to be His enemy forever. God's relationship to His creation is always active, never passive. He actively elects and actively damns. He actively creates and He actively destroys. He actively bestows grace and He actively curses. All things have been actively predestined.


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